Reaction to Deasy resignation as polarizing as his tenure

Alex Caputo-Pearl strike talks UTLA

UTLA President Alex-Caputo Pearl (file photo)

Former LA Unified Superintendent John Deasy was a polarizing figure, earning almost equal parts praise and scorn, and naturally the news of his resignation has evoked similar opposing reactions.

Some have expressed disappointment and outrage over his resignation, while some can barely contain their glee.

In an email to LA School Report, Ben Austin, executive director of Parent Trigger, a group that helps parents overhaul failing schools, perhaps summed up the viewpoints of most Deasy supporters that student achievement should have outweighed other factors.

“While It’s certainly true that John departs under a cloud of controversy, it’s easy to forget that avoiding controversy is not the job of a superintendent,” he wrote. “It’s serving kids. By that measure, John has been the most successful superintendent in modern LAUSD history. Powerful adult interests have been working for years to oust John. Today was a victory for them and a setback for my children and all the children of the LAUSD.”

Maria Brenes, executive director of Inner City Struggle, a community group that works for improving educational achievement for urban students, said, “We are very grateful for Dr. Deasy’s work in expanding educational opportunities for students of color in LAUSD. We expect the School Board to move forward in this period of transition to ensure that the academic successes that came as a result of Dr. Deasy’s leadership, continue and grow.”

Another community group that worked closely with Deasy and the district — CLASS, or Communities for Los Angeles Student Success — expressed gratitude for the academic advances made during Deasy’s tenure.

“The thousands of families and educators we represent appreciate his unrelenting commitment to delivering a high quality education to the students at LAUSD,” The group said in a statement. “Dr. Deasy embraced a number of community-led efforts and policies that have resulted in tremendous gains for the district including a jump in four-year graduation rates to 77%; expanding Linked Learning to twenty-three high schools districtwide; decreasing suspension rates for students of color resulting in 37,655 more days spent in the classroom; and increasing the number of students taking Advanced Placement courses.” 

One of the victors in Deasy’s departure is United Teachers Los Angeles (UTLA), whose president, Alex Caputo-Pearl, has been unrelenting in his criticism of Deasy, including his policy of teacher jail, his “autocratic” style, his support of the Vergara lawsuit and Deasy’s gamble on two computer technology programs viewed by many as failures. The union also sought to paint him as a tool of reform movement.

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In resignation letter, Deasy ‘overwhelmed with pride’

images-1In his resignation letter to the LA Unified school board, out-going Superintendent John Deasy used most of his words to describe a school district that is far better off today than the one he took over in 2011.

“I am overwhelmed with pride in what this administration has accomplished for the youth of Los Angeles over the last 4 plus years,” he wrote, adding, “By every single measure of our work, the youth have a significantly better education today than they did more than 4 years ago. Measures of achievement, access, outcomes, agency, climate, and success are all substantially better than when we started this work. Graduation rates, achievement rates in math and English language arts, reclassification rates, AP course takers, safety, suspension, attendance, and so many others clearly point to a better life for students in our care.”

Deasy also praised his staff for working “ceaselessly to ensure a better outcome for youth,” and he alluded to the issues of the past months that have pulled so much criticism his way, specifically the iPad program and its’ tumultuous introduction.

Referring to a forthcoming report from the district’s Inspector General, who is examining emails between Deasy and the companies involved in the iPad program, Apple and Pearson, he wrote that he “look(s) forward to his conclusion and findings that will determine that there were no missteps on my part in the process whatsoever.”

While Deasy was known to have grown weary of friction with the board and his challenges in convincing members follow his vision, for the first time publicly he mentions the impact his job has had on him personally.

“Needless to say this has been hard work, in fact exhausting work,” he wrote. “I have neglected my family, my health, and my parent’s heath. We all carry the ball for a while, and then give it to others to continue. I have had this amazing opportunity and privilege. I am proud and honored, but it is time for a transition.

In a concluding thought, he thanks his ever-growing list of critics “for they have helped us see where we can do our work better, and that is what we do with each opportunity to improve. I also wish to thank my supporters. You have enabled us to move quickly to right wrongs in the lives of youth, but please do not be satisfied, there is so much more we need to accomplish.”

The entire letter is available here

Breaking news: LA Unified confirms Cortines is interim

Ray Cortines

Ray Cortines

LA Unified has confirmed that the district’s former superintendent, Ray Cortines, will return to the post on an interim basis until a permanent replacement is found for John Deasy, who resigned today.

Here’s the statement:

“The Los Angeles Board of Education has appointed Ramon C. Cortines to serve as Superintendent of Schools pending a search process for a successor superintendent to Dr. John E. Deasy.  The District appreciates Mr. Cortines agreeing to serve in this capacity.

“Mr. Cortines will begin his tenure on Monday, Oct. 20.”


Breaking News: LAUSD makes it official, Deasy steps down

Deasy cancels ipad contractLA Unified made it official: John Deasy is stepping down as the district superintendent. There was no mention of an interim.

Here’s the statement:

“Today, Superintendent John Deasy tendered his resignation as General Superintendent of Schools from the District. We thank Dr. Deasy for over three years of devoted service to the District and its students. In that period of time, academic achievement rose substantially despite severe economic hardships, and the students of the District have benefitted greatly from Dr. Deasy’s guidance.

“We look forward to jointly celebrating all of the successes of our students that have occurred during Dr. Deasy’s tenure as Superintendent.

“While the District’s investigation into the Common Core Technology Project has not concluded, the Board wishes to state that at this time, it does not believe that the Superintendent engaged in any ethical violations or unlawful acts, and the Board anticipates that the Inspector General’s report will confirm this.

“We further jointly desire a smooth transition in leadership. Towards that end, Dr. Deasy has agreed to remain on special assignment with the District until December 31, 2014.”


LAUSD appears ready to name Cortines interim superintendent

Ray Cortines

Ray Cortines

Ray Cortines appears  to be returning to lead LA Unified for a third time.

With John Deasy resigning, Cortines was chosen unanimously by the seven member board, a condition Cortines insisted upon before agreeing to take the helm of the district, according to sources who were made aware of the board’s decision.

An official announcement is expected sometime today.

Cortines, 82, served for a brief stint in 2000 before landing the position permanently in 2009, following David Brewer’s swift and expensive departure. Ironically, it was Cortines who handed the baton in 2011 to Superintendent John Deasy, who was his deputy at the time.

Shortly after stepping down, his reputation was marred by scandal when a former LA Unified senior manager sued him, charging sexual harassment.

Cortines was Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa’s choice for the post in 2009, and under his direction, the district developed the “public school choice” model, which allowed a proliferation of charter schools to set up shop in the district. That put him at odds with several board members who opposed charter school growth.

He also steered the district through the first three years of the financial crisis, cutting a staggering $1.5 billion from the budget and massive layoffs. About 2,700 teachers and 4,900 other employees lost their jobs during that period.

Cortines has lead four other school districts: San Francisco, San Jose, Pasadena and New York City.

LA School Report incorrectly reported last night that Deasy’s deputy, Michelle King, would be named the interim, while a permanant replacement is sought.

Morning Read: Year-round schooling growing in popularity

Popularity grows anew for year-round schooling When Stiles Simmons, the superintendent of a two-school district outside Lansing, Mich., looked at the data, he realized summer break was hurting his mostly-low-income students. Education Week

Teacher training extends to gender sensitivity Along with the heavy load of training tied to the new Common Core content standards, a growing number of teachers are also being asked to take professional development intended to improve gender identity awareness and inclusiveness. S&I Cabinet Report

Calif. schools have dogs in unlikely proposition fights When it comes to the Nov. 4 statewide General Election, most of the K-12 education community’s attention has been on Proposition 2, but schools also stand to be impacted by two other ballot measures. S&I Cabinet Report

Norward Roussell, who led schools in Selma in turbulent time, dies at 80 Norward Roussell, who in 1987 arrived in Selma, Ala., as the city’s first black superintendent of schools with aspirations to equalize educational opportunity, died on Monday in Selma. He was 80. New York Times

As Deasy’s fate remains uncertain, other districts continue tech purchases School officials across the U.S. say they have already learned one major lesson from Los Angeles’ botched iPad rollout: Classroom technology is here to stay, but it is important to choose wisely. The Hechinger Report

BREAKING NEWS: Deasy expected to step down

 John Deasy, the beleaguered superintendent of LA Unified, the nation’s second-largest school district, is expected to step down as soon as Thursday, according to five district and school board sources with knowledge of the situation.

After weeks of negotiations between lawyers for Deasy and the seven-member board, he submitted his resignation and signed a separation agreement that brings an end to his employment, well before the 30-day grace period he would have had in a case of dismissal by the board, sources told LA School Report.

The district is expected to make the announcement, perhaps as early as tomorrow morning. It is also expected that one of his chief deputies, Michelle King, will be named the interim superintendent while the board begins a search for a permanent replacement. Deasy, who succeeded Ramon Cortines in 2011, is LA Unified’s fourth superintendent since 2000.

The board several weeks ago had authorized its lawyers to begin negotiating a separation agreement with lawyers for Deasy. The final terms of the agreement were reached in the last day or so, with Deasy in South Korea on an cultural visit, said sources, all of whom spoke only on the condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issues and legal restrictions against discussing a private matter.

Deasy was scheduled to return to Los Angeles by the end of this week. He did not attend the most recent board meeting yesterday, which included closed-door discussions of his employment status.

He was unreachable tonight for comment.

Deasy’s resignation after three years as superintendent brings to an end a volatile but productive period in the district with his tenure marked by dramatic improvement in student academic measures yet traumatic developments in programs undertaken by his administration, all at a time budget restraints have limited the district’s ability to support more personnel and programs.

He has made no secret of his growing frustrations with a board that has often been at odds with his approach to public education, more so since the school board elections of 2013 and last August reduced the number of members who supported his vision.

That vision — the belief that quality public education is a civil right — came to include his championing of a program to deliver an iPad to every district student. More than anything else, problems with the iPad distribution came to symbolize the collision between vision and reality, starting a drumbeat for his dismissal.

Nor was he helped by testy relations with the teachers union, UTLA, which has been a steady critic from the start of his tenure, most recently over his unwillingness or inability to raise teacher salaries to levels they are seeking in negotiations for a new contract.



ACLU to seek state intervention at 2 other LAUSD high schools

State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson speaks before the LA Unified school board on Oct. 14, 2014.

State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson speaks before the LA Unified school board yesterday.

Lawyers at the ACLU and Public Counsel plan to ask the state by tomorrow to intervene at LA Unified’s Dorsey High School and Freemont High School in a similar way that it stepped in at Jefferson High School.

The move comes after last week’s court-issued temporary restraining order (TRO) that required the state to fix an array of scheduling problems at Jefferson that led to several dozen students being placed in multiple free class periods with no educational value.

“We have documented [class problems] are present at Freemont and Dorsey. So we are proposing that the order that was issued as to Jefferson, if the defendants would agree, should be extended to those schools as well,” David Sapp, a lawyer for ACLU Southern California, told LA School Report.

Fingers have been pointed in different directions by the teachers union, the administrators union and the district as to who is responsible for the Jefferson situation. Blame has been placed on administrative turnover, teachers not altering their schedule to reflect evaporating grant funds and the district’s troubled MiSiS computer system.

The ACLU and Public Counsel represent plaintiffs in the Cruz. vs. California case that accuses the state of failing to provide an adequate education to students in nine California high schools by sticking them in free periods instead of real classes.

The TRO that was issued last week is part of the lawsuit and resulted in the LA Unified school board yesterday approving a $1.1 million plan to fix the problems, which includes adding more staff and extending the class day. State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson appeared before the board and spoke in support the plan. Continue reading

Galatzan volunteers to lead panel on email retention policy


LA Unified board member Tamar Galatzan speaks at a board meeting on Jan. 14, 2014. (Credit: file photo)

Board member Tamar Galatzan volunteered yesterday to lead a task force examining LA Unified’s email deletion and retention policy, which is intended to eliminate unnecessary emails even as some some board members fear it could lead to the destruction of important records.

“It is critical that the public have confidence in the district’s commitment to transparency,” said Galatzan, who represents the most of the West San Fernando Valley and several East Valley neighborhoods, including Sherman Oaks and Studio City.

“We want to make sure we have a system that safeguards critical emails and lets us easily access them when and if they are needed,” she added. “We also want employees to be able to work efficiently, and to have clear guidelines for the types of emails they should be retaining.”

The current policy, established in 2012, mandates that all district emails be destroyed after one year or be automatically deleted. The only way to save emails for more than a calendar year is by saving or archiving them onto a hard drive.

The panel, which will include district administrators, representatives of district labor unions and members of open-government groups, will consider whether some types of communications should be automatically archived.

“At the September 9 board meeting, I raised concerns that the District’s records policy provided for the destruction of emails that could have value to the public as historical records,” said Monica Ratliff, who co-sponsored the resolution to form the task force alongside Bennett Kayser and Galatzan.

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Jefferson students recount the long waits and lost learning time


Jefferson High School student Jason Magaña speaks at the LA Unified school board meeting on Oct. 14, 2014. (Credit: Craig Clough)

Some students at Jefferson High School have been asked to do a lot of waiting this school year — waiting in an auditorium for days or weeks with no class work, waiting to get into the right classes, waiting to get enough classes.

Now, as they wait for the state and LA Unified to fix a myriad of problems at Jefferson, they waited patiently for three hours yesterday to tell the district school board their stories.

“At the beginning of the year, I went with hundreds of other students to the auditorium, waiting to be called up to get our classes,” Jason Magaña told the board. “At the beginning of the year, I was assigned to graphic design, even though I had taken and passed that class twice. I needed to be taking economics or government so I can complete the requirements to graduate and be eligible to get into college.”

Magaña said he did eventually get into an economics class four weeks into the semester and has found it difficult to catch up. He is also still assigned two home periods that he did not ask for and is done with school before noon several days a week.

“It is frustrating to me to be sent home early instead of being in challenging classes that will make me better prepared for college,” Magaña told the board.

Magaña is a plaintiff in the Cruz vs. California lawsuit that accuses the state of failing to provide students at nine California schools — including Jefferson —  a valuable education. As part of the lawsuit, a judge issued a temporary restraining order last week ordering the state to fix the problems the Jefferson students were there to talk about.

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LAUSD board gets a dispiriting lesson on the MiSiS program

Matt Hill, Ron Chandler appear before the LA Unified board

Matt Hill, Ron Chandler appear before the LA Unified board

MiSiS mistakes were made, and LA Unified can expect to fork over millions more dollars to fix the software system’s myriad problems and get the program functioning properly.

In all, it was another demoralizing revelation about the MiSiS rollout debacle last night, and school board members’ frustrations quickly boiled over, leading to a verbal beat down of Chief Information Officer Ron Chandler, who served as the face of a new request for $3.6 million to buy 3,343 desktop computers for the nearly 800 schools with the most difficulty accessing the computer student data software because their devices are incompatible with the system.

“This should have been readily apparent all along and it should have been one of the considerations when rolling MiSiS out,” said Tamar Galatzan, whose every statement on the subject ended with a verbal exclamation mark.

An obvious question to ask before developing the system, she said, would have been, “What kind of devices are members going to use to enter this data? Beside the fact that the system doesn’t work, if you don’t even have a computer that’s new enough to be able to run it, it’s just ludicrous!,” she said.

When Chandler tried to defend his department’s actions, noting that the district failed to invest scarce dollars in acquiring new machines as a result of the recession, Steve Zimmer went on the attack.

“That was not a choice the board got to make,” he said pointing a finger at Chandler.

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An update: Deasy is still LAUSD superintendent, for now, anyway

Superintendent John Deasy

Superintendent John Deasy

John Deasy is still the LA Unified superintendent.

The district board met for more than 13 hours yesterday, including seven in closed session, where Deasy’s employment status was on the agenda. But the members emerged after a final 30 minutes in closed session at 11 o’clock last night with no announcements.

That means that the beleaguered boss is still at the helm of the nation’s second-largest school district even if his continued association with the district remains uncertain.

Little is really known about what’s going on. The board has authorized settlement negotiations for a buyout package, but there has been no public indication that lawyers are close or even if they are still talking.

Short of a buyout or an outright resignation, the board has several choices: It could vote to fire Deasy under several scenarios, which include instant dismissal, which would leave him in charge for nor more than 30 days; or judging his performance, scheduled for Oct. 21,  less than “satisfactory,” which would mean letting him remain through the end of his “at will” contract, June 2016.

The thing about a vote to fire him is tricky. The board needs four votes to do, and the votes don’t appear to be there yet. As much as several members clearly want Deasy out, the board operates with a majority rule on votes. It seems reasonable to assume that if a majority wanted him gone, he’d be gone by now.

Anyway, Deasy returns at the end of the week from South Korea to await his fate — not to mention updates on Jefferson High School, MiSiS problems, iPads, Title I battles and all the other issues plaguing LA Unified these days.


Morning Read: LAUSD takes on bullying of LGBT athletes

LAUSD ‘blowing the whistle’ on bullying, hazing of LGBT student athletes
Officials announced Tuesday the Los Angeles Unified School District will “blow the whistle” on bullying and hazing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender student athletes. Los Angeles Daily News

A fortune for iPads, but not enough for math books
Commentary: With the conversion to Common Core standards, L.A. Unified purchased new math books for eighth grade, but not for sixth or seventh. The reason was lack of funding. Los Angeles Times

Deasy and keeping students at the center of political battles
Commentary: Los Angeles Unified School District recently announced a 15-point increase in its graduation rate. This is cause for immense celebration as more students are on their pathways out of poverty. The Hechinger Report

There’s no Superman, but Deasy wasn’t afraid to try on the cape
Commentary: John Deasy wasn’t dealt a winning hand. He’s a very smart guy, so I think he knew it from the start, but he wanted to play the game as superintendent of Los Angeles Unified so badly that he picked up the cards anyway. The Hechinger Report

LA school board backs $3.6 million ‘bailout’ of faulty data system
The LA Unified board Tuesday night approved the purchase of 3,340 computers costing $3.6 million for school sites struggling to properly schedule classes, take attendance and track student needs in a new data system. KPCC

L.A. school board OKs plan to resolve Jefferson High problems
The Los Angeles Board of Education on Tuesday approved a $1.1-million plan to provide a longer school day, additional classes and tutoring to Jefferson High students who lost instructional time. Los Angeles Times

School board returns to closed session to discuss — Deasy?

Superintendent John DeasyAfter 12 hours of open and closed meetings, the LA Unified school board still wasn’t through for the day.

At 10 pm tonight, the members retreated back into closed session, spurring speculation they were returning to the issue of Superintendent John Deasy‘s employment status.

With Deasy in South Korea on a cultural trip and due back at the end of the week, the members had before them the same options they have been wrestling with for weeks, as criticism of Deasy over a multitude of issues has intensified.

Their choices: do nothing; vote on his performance evaluation, which could lead to termination by June 2016; or fire him.

Deasy has the option of negotiating a settlement package to leave — the board has authorized lawyers to start the process. But board members have said nothing has been finalized, and Deasy has consistently refused to discuss his employment status.

If the board does make a decision on Deasy, the members are obligated to report their action publicly at the conclusion of the closed meeting. If they merely go home, that is a sure sign they reached no conclusion and took no action.



Caputo-Pearl: ‘Shameful’ to blame Jefferson High teachers

Alex Caputo-Pearl at a news conference

Alex Caputo-Pearl, President of UTLA

The president of the teachers union, Alex Caputo-Pearl, today refuted accusations by LA Unified officials that teachers are to blame for the scheduling problems at Jefferson High School.

“Some district people, not all, have brought forward the idea of blaming the teachers, which is ridiculous and a red herring,” Caputo-Pearl told LA School Report. “There is actually more sections of classes as an absolute number offered at Jefferson than at most high schools.”

In an LA School Report story on Monday, several district officials said part of the blame for scheduling problems was on the teachers at the school for refusing to alter their schedule, which is an eight-period day that allows for two teacher conferences instead of the typical one.

Addressing the board during a special session dedicated to Jefferson, Caputo-Pearl said the district’s blaming of teachers “is shameful, actually, that there are district personnel who have tried to blame this situation on teachers and educators. The schedule that they have at Jefferson actually offers more than enough space, class sections and flexibility to offer the classes that would have been needed, had appropriate scheduling been brought forward.”

Caputo-Pearl said blame lies not with the teachers, but with the district and Superintendent John Deasy for changing administrators several times as the school year was about to begin, in one case installing one without expertise in master scheduling at the high school level. He also blamed MiSiS, the district’s new software system.

“Typical Deasy trying to blame things on the union. Its very clear that he didn’t have a plan for Jefferson, he put in an inexperienced administration in,” Caputo-Pearl said. “He minimized the role of MiSiS by saying for weeks that the problem wasn’t as bad. It’s typical Deasy to take something that was his responsibility and swing it around into the winners’ column.”

Caputo-Pearl also said the union believes an independent monitor should be placed at the school to make sure the temporary restraining order that was issued last week by a judge is carried out correctly.

Vanessa Romo contributed to this report. 

LA Unified board OKs $1.1 million for Jefferson schedule mess


Jefferson High School students (from right) Armani Richards, Jason Magaña, Bryan Rodriguez and Eduardo Tamayo before they are set to speak at the LA Unified school board meeting on Oct. 14, 2014.

The LA Unified school board today unanimously approved the district’s $1.1 million plan to fix scheduling issues at Jefferson High School and respond to a temporary restraining order issued last week by a judge that ordered the state to step in and fix the problems.

Before the vote on the plan — which was presented by Tommy Chang, superintendent of Intensive Support and Innovation Center for LA Unified and Jefferson Principal Jack Foote — the board heard from a number of students at Jefferson who told stories of lost learning time and being shuffled into the wrong classes or the school auditorium to wait for days or weeks for a new schedule.

The board also heard from United Teachers Los Angeles (UTLA) President Alex-Caputo Pearl, who assailed the district’s efforts to lay of the blame at the foot of the school’s teachers, and from State Superintendent of Instruction Tom Torlakson, who said he supported the plan, which includes extending the class day and increasing support personnel.

“I am committed, and the California Department of Education is committed, to fully support the district’s efforts to make their plan succeed and meet the needs of the students at Jefferson,” Torlakson said.

The remedies in the plan include adding courses for students who need them, by Friday, and extending the school day by 30 minutes, starting Oct. 20, to add 3,600 minutes of instruction for the year.

The temporary restraining order was issued as part of a larger lawsuit, Cruz vs. California, which was brought by the ACLU and Public Counsel on behalf of students who allege the state is not assuring the quality of education for students from nine schools around California, including LA Unified’s Jefferson, Dorsey High School and Florence Griffith Joyner Elementary School

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LAUSD board approves plan to solve Jefferson schedule


The Los Angeles Unified School District board unanimously approved a $1.1 million plan Tuesday to resolve class-scheduling issues at Jefferson High School in south L.A.

The issues have hundreds of seniors worried they may not graduate on time. The issues have hundreds of seniors worried they may not graduate on time. According to court documents, at least 48 seniors at the school are unable to attend classes they need in order to graduate.

Also, 204 juniors and seniors are assigned to classes they’ve already passed. The students say they have far too much free time on their hands. Some students claim they sit in the auditorium, assigned to so-called courses where there is no teacher. Others are being sent home to study.

The district and the state say they don’t have the money to take care of this issue. So, it is being taken up in superior court in Alameda County, where a judge ordered the state to fix the problem. That’s where the $1.1 million deal comes in to play.

With that money, the LAUSD board wants to extend the school day at Jefferson High School 30 minutes for 124 days so students can make up the learning time they lost. They also want to add classes and funding to support students and add student transportation services to the school.

They’re going to look into next semester’s curriculum to make sure this doesn’t happen again and also look into the issue of overcrowded classrooms at the school.


LA Unified board meeting running waaaaaaay late

LAUSD Logo in iPadWith Superintendent John Deasy‘s future, teacher union contract negotiations, Jefferson High School and MiSiS problems on the agenda today for the LA Unified school board, the expectation was for high drama.

But the expectations have been put on hold for a bit. The board was scheduled to begin its public meeting at 1 p.m. It was finally, 3 hours, 20 minutes later that  members emerged from a closed door meeting and began taking their seats for the open meeting.

LA School Report will post major developments later today — or tonight or tomorrow morning — depending on when the board members finish up for the day.

Report asks: How vital or irrelevant is a superintendent?

Brookings_Logo.jpg alt=Via the Brookings Institute | By Matthew M. Chingos, Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst and Katharine M. Lindquist

Superintendents are highly visible actors in the American education system. As the highest ranking official in a school district, the superintendent receives a lot of credit when things go well, and just as much blame when they don’t. But should they?

Research emerging over the past decade has provided strong evidence of the substantial effects that teachers have on their students’ achievement. More recent findings suggest that principals also have meaningful, albeit smaller, effects on student achievement. However, there is almost no quantitative research that addresses the impact of superintendents on student achievement. This report provides some of the first empirical evidence on the topic.

Read the full report here.